Computer Hardware Parts – Learn About The Basics Before You Make A Purchase

A laptop on a table

The computer is a system made up of two parts hardware and software. Software refers to all the parts inside the computer. It is the programs and other operating information used by the computer. All the other parts outside the computer are the hardware parts of the computer.

Hardware Parts Of Computer

Computer hardware parts are the parts that we use to operate the computer. It is called the hardware parts because its pattern is rigid difficult to change. The five main hardware components of a computer are input, output, communication device, storage, and processing.

Hardware parts of the computer include:-



The central processing unit (CPU)

Computer data storage

Graphics card 

Sound card





These are the basic parts that all the computers have. There are different types of computers that might have additional hardware parts.

Departmental Computer

A person sitting at a table

The hardware parts of the departmental computer include Von Neumann architecture scheme, PDP-11 CPU board, Random accessing disk (RAM), two expansion cards, optical disc drive, and hard disc drive.

Input Unit feeds data or instructions into the computer system. It then converts the Human Readable language to machine language (mainly 0’s and 1’s) which is readable by the computer. 

Examples – Some of the commonly used input devices are the mouse, keyboard, scanners, joystick, magnetic tape, etc. 

Such devices that are used to input data or instructions into the computer is called as the Input Unit or Devices. 

● Arithmetic Logic Unit

It is a digital circuit used to perform arithmetic and logical calculations or operations. Examples of Arithmetic operations are Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication, and Division. The examples of Logical operations are AND, OR, and NOT used for the comparisons of values. 

When all the operations are performed by the Arithmetic Logic Unit, the obtained results are transferred to the Storage Unit. 

● Control Unit

This is the central nervous system of the computer which controls the data flow and the instructions flow to and from the Storage Unit to the Arithmetic Logic Unit of the computer. In short, Control Unit controls all the other parts of the computer system. 

● Central Processing Unit

It is the brain of the computer. When combining both the Arithmetic Logic Unit and the Control Unit, it forms the Central Processing Unit of the computer. It is the decision taker who performs all sorts of operations by controlling all other parts of the computer system. 

● Output Unit

Output Unit helps in providing the results to the outside world (to the users). The results may be any computation results or any instructions to the outside world. In short, Output Units helps in connecting the internal system of the computer to the outside environment. Some of the examples of Output Units are Monitor, Printers, etc. 


The Central Processing Unit helps in executing each and every instruction which is provided to it in a step-by-step manner which is called as the Machine Cycle. 

A machine cycle fetches the instructions from the memory,  decode it into a series of commands, and execute the computer commands. The last step is the storage which writes the results in the memory (FETCH, DECODE, EXECUTE, and STORE).

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